Vigenère cipher online encoder and decoder. Encrypt and decrypt any cipher created in a Vigenère cipher. You can use any shift and additionally a key for more precise text encoding.

The CAPM calculator can be used to calculate the cost of equity, to evaluate the investment effectiveness of collective investment funds (open-end investment funds, pension funds, etc.), to study the efficiency of the stock market, etc.
The CAPM calculator in the form of SML allows you to calculate the expected rate of return on all portfolios, not only effective ones, as well as individual stock market shares.

With the help of the calculator you will calculate the determinant of the fourth degree matrix by the Laplace Expansion method. You will learn step by step how the calculations are performed and we will get explanations of each action. A useful tool for learning, consolidating, checking your own calculations and understanding the Laplace method.

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